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The paintings and engravings have not been the subject of direct dating and would date back to a period between 18000 and 17000 years ago, a date that scholars have reached by analyzing the objects discovered in the cave. The cave is located in the Dordogne region, within the municipality of Montignac, about 40 km from Périguex and 25 from Sarlat-la-Canéda.

Several versions, often contradictory and imaginatively told, of the discovery of the Lascaux cave have been reported. According to the most frequent version, on September 8, 1940, Marcel Ravidat accidentally discovered the entrance to the cavity while chasing his dog during a walk with his companions Jean Clauzel, Maurice Queyroi and Louis Perier. Ravidat’s dog, chasing a rabbit, stopped near a hole located where a tree had been uprooted: it was an opening of about 20 centimeters in diameter that did not allow exploration. The same boy, throwing stones to flush out the rabbit, discovers that the hole communicates with a large cavity. Four days later, on 12 September, Ravidat, equipped with an oil lamp and a saber, returned to the site of the uprooted tree along with three other boys. The four young men entered the cave for the first time, discovering the wonderful paintings on the walls. After several visits, one of the boys, Jacques Marsal, revealed the discovery to his parents, who were worried seeing him return covered in dust. The news reached the boys’ teacher, Leon Laval, who on September 16 made a first exploration.

Laval decided to immediately notify the prehistoric scholar Henri Breuil, who was in the region to escape the occupation of France. Breuil was the first scholar to enter and admire the rock paintings of Lascaux. The visit took place on September 21, 1940, less than 10 days after the first exploration by the boys.

Around the world, 8 September is the day dedicated to raising awareness of the education of individuals, communities and society. The 2020 edition has as its theme “teaching and learning in the Covid-19 crisis and beyond”, with a special focus on educators and changing pedagogical techniques. Worldwide, 773 million young people and adults do not have basic literacy.

This is just one of the data that highlights how far equitable schooling is at any latitude. International Literacy Day is celebrated on 8 September.

According to the most recent UNESCO data, 774 million adults cannot read and write. But the most dramatic plague is what is known as functional illiteracy. It is a condition that affects those who can read and write, can express themselves correctly, but are unable to reach an adequate level of understanding and analysis of a complex speech. The most reliable data on the phenomenon of functional illiteracy in Italy are those of the Piaac-OECD survey of 2019. According to this statistic, in the Bel Paese 28 percent of the population between 16 and 65 years is functional illiterate. It is one of the highest figures in Europe, equaled by Spain and surpassed by Turkey, at 47 percent.

International Literacy Day 2020 has as its theme “teaching and learning in the Covid-19 crisis and beyond”, with a special focus on educators and changing pedagogical techniques. The theme highlights the importance of continuous learning. The crisis linked to the Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the gap between political discourse and reality even more. Many programs dedicated to adult education have been suspended. Over a billion students stayed at home, disrupting the education of 62.3 percent of the world’s youth population.

After the fall of fascism on 25 July 1943 and the arrest of Benito Mussolini, now the former absolute head of the government, Italy was now a country in ruins and already invaded by American troops who had landed in Sicily.

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